Natuur- en scheikunde
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1 begrippen die ik nog niet weet
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Build to order = When a product is scheduled and built in response to a specification and confirmed order received from a final customer. Comparative advantage = Advantage a nation has in comparison to another nation. Contract manufacture = Arrangement in which a subcontractor undertakes manufacturing (or service provision) under license. Countertrade = exchanging goods or services which are paid for, in whole or part, with other goods or services, rather than with money. Country or origin effect = the perceptions and attitudes towards product or brands on the basis of their country of origin, design or manufacture. Cultural paradoxes = a term to describe the cultural sensitivities in a market where there evidence both of the westernization of tastes and the assertion of ethnic, religious and cultural differences. Customer-led = Adopting marketing approaches that primarily focus on the needs and expectations of customers. Differentiated marketing = Strategy whereby a company attempts to appeal to two or more clearly defined market segments with a specific product and unique marketing strategy tailored to each separate segment. Direct channels = distribution channel in which a producer supplies or service directly an ultimate user. Doha Round = name given to the current negotiations being undertake by members of the WTO are attempting to liberalize trading rules and get rid of trading barriers Domestic purchasing = International trade in whixh a foreign firm approaches a non-exporter, buys the product and takes all aspects of exporting. Effective consumer response = supply chain partnerships wich work together towards making the retail sector more responsive to consumer demand and promote the removal of unnecessary costs from the supply chain. Emerging economies = emerging markets are nations with social or business activity in the process of rapid growth and industrialization Enculturation = process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which she is surrounded. Ethical challenges = challenge of setting the ehtical values in international marketing strategies and then driving those through long distribution channels across geographical markets with different ethical values. ethnocentric = centered on a specific ethnic group, usually one's own. Exchange Rate Mechanism = the ERm was a system introduced by the EU community as a part of the EMS to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe in preparation for economic and monetary union. Existing markets = product/service markets where customers demands are served from a number of suppliers and the infrastructure to support the market is established. Export administration = management of the processes that allow an export transaction to take place. Export houses = Specialist firms that act as the export department for a range of companies and take in the role and responsibilities that would normally be done by those companies. Export processing zone = area or region where firms can import duty free as long as the imports are used as inputs into the production of exports. Exporting = selling abroad product produced in the home country without significant adaption to foreign market needs. Foreign market channels = channels of distribution within countries outside a firms domestic operations. Function specific hubs = electronic market places where buyers and sellers meet using internet to trade in business services as HR or business process management. Generic marketing strategies = marketing strategies that can be applied to all market context, based on segmentation targeting and positioning and underpinned by porters generic growth strategies (cost leadership, focus and differentiation) Geocentric = having the earth as the centre Global appeal = attraction of certain products and services to a global consumer segment. Global brand = brand that is the same positioning and image across the world. Global reach = ability to connect with customers around the world, where appropriate using third parties. Global sourcing = process of arranging goods and services to be supplied irrespective of geographic location Globalization = process of progressing towards trading in all major regions and most country markets. Grey marketing = trade of a commmodity through distribution channels which, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized or unintended by the original manufacturer. Gross national income = national income plus capital consumption allowance. High context culture = culture in which the context is at least as important as what is actually said. Incipient markets = markets where economic conditions suggst a market may develop but the market as yet does not exist. Indirect exporting = market entry methods in which firms commit few resources to international marketing and largely rely on third parties to build their international business. Inseparability = the marketing of services, the service is created but it can not be divided into pieces. Integrated supply chain = optimization and control of the supply chain network of suppliers, factories, warehouses, distribution centres and retailers through which materials are acquired, trasformed and deliverd to the customer. Interactive customer marketing = ability to adress an individual and the ability to gather and remember the response of that individual leading to the ability to adress the individual once more in a way that takes into account this unique response. Interactive shopping = allow the consumer to play an active role in the selection and customization of her order. Internal cost structures = cost elements that correspond to a specific internal operations of a company. International Development Association = An agency of the UN affiliated with the World Bank International manager = staff member with responsibility to manage across borders. International marketing = Process of planning and conducting transactions across national borders to create exchanges that satisfy objectives of individuals and organizations. IMF = UN agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies. International product lifecycle = concept that enables the firm to describe the stages (introduction, growth, maturity, decline) in all the different country markets. International product offer = bundle of benefits for international customers that are presented in the total product package. International product portfolio = firms chosen range of products and services that provide a complete and satisfactory offer to customers. International trade = exchange of capital goods services across international broders. Internationalization = pursuit of market opportunities outside the home country. Joint ventures = market entry approach whereby two or more companies share ownership of a newly created firm. Knowledge management = Strategies used by organizations to identify share etc. of insights and experiences. Latent markets = a group of people who have been identified as potential customers of a product that does not yet exist. Learning curve = line graph displaying opportunities acros the X as and a measure of performance along the y as Less developed economies = a country which, according to UN, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest human development index ratings of all countries in the world Licensing = when a firm makes assets, such as knowhow, available to another firm in exchange for royalties. logistics = management of the flow of goods, info etc. Low-context cultures = those where people are more psychologically distant so that information needs to be explicits if members are to understand it. Management contracts = Service projects undertaken by partner firms in conjunction with a supplier typically of major infrastructure installations. Marginal cost pricing = outcome of perfectly competitive markets in which the price of each good is equal to its marginal cost.
Kennemer College Büllerlaan
) op 10-06-2014 - 1032x bekeken.
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