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analyse = to study or examine something in detail, in order to discover more about it economy = the system of trade and industry by which the wealth of a country is made and used; the intentional saving of money or, less commonly, the saving of time, energy, words, etc legislate = A government making a new law approach = to come near or nearer to something or someone in space, time, quality, or amount; to deal with something; to speak to, write to, or visit someone in order to do something such as make a request or business agreement area = a particular part of a place, piece of land, or country; a subject or activity, or a part of it;the size of a flat surface calculated by multiplying its length by its width assess = to judge or decide the amount, value, quality, or importance of something assume = to accept something to be true without question or proof; to pretend to have a different name or be someone you are not, or to express a feeling falsely; to take or begin to have responsibility or control, sometimes without the right to do so, or to begin to have a characteristic authority = the moral or legal right or ability to control; a group of people with official responsibility for a particular area of activity available = able to be bought or used; If someone is available, they are not busy and therefore unable to do something benefit = a helpful or good effect, or something intended to help; an advantage such as medical insurance, life insurance, and sick pay, that employees receive from their employer in addition to money concept = a principle or idea consist = to have something as a main and necessary part or quality constistute = to be or be considered as something; to form or make something context = the situation within which something exists or happens, and that can help explain it; the text or speech that comes immediately before and after a particular phrase or piece of text and helps to explain its meaning contract = a legal document that states and explains a formal agreement between two different people or groups, or the agreement itself create = to make something new, or invent something data = information, especially facts or numbers, collected to be examined and considered and used to help decision-making, or information in an electronic form that can be stored and used by a computer define = to say what the meaning of something, especially a word, is; to explain and describe the meaning and exact limits of something derive = to get something from something else distribute = to give something out to several people, or to spread or supply something environment = the air, water, and land in or on which people, animals, and plants live; the conditions that you live or work in and the way that they influence how you feel or how effectively you can work establish = to start a company or organization that will continue for a long time; to start having a relationship with, or communicating with another person, company, country, or organization; to cause something or someone to be accepted in or familiar with a place, position, etc.; to discover or get proof of something estimate = to guess or calculate the cost, size, value, etc. of something evident = easily seen or understood export = to send goods to another country for sale factor = a fact or situation that influences the result of something; in mathematics, any whole number that is produced when you divide a larger number by another whole number; a particular level on some systems of measurement finance = (the management of) a supply of money; the money that a person or company has; to provide the money needed for something to happen formula = a standard or accepted way of doing or making something; a mathematical rule expressed in a set of numbers and letters; a series of letters and symbols that show what substances make up a particular chemical element or compound function = the natural purpose (of something) or the duty (of a person); an official ceremony or a formal social event, such as a party or a special meal, at which a lot of people are usually present; an official ceremony or a formal social event, such as a party or a special meal, at which a lot of people are usually present; (in mathematics) a quantity whose value depends on another value and changes with that value identity = who a person is, or the qualities of a person or group that make them different from others income = money that is earned from doing work or received from investments; a company's profit in a particular period of time: indicate = to show, point, or make clear in another way; to show other road users that you intend to turn left or right when you are driving a vehicle; to suggest something as being suitable individual = a single person or thing, especially when compared to the group or set to which they belong; a person who thinks or behaves in their own original way; interpret = to decide what the intended meaning of something is; to express your own ideas about the intended meaning of a play or a piece of music when performing it; to change what someone is saying into another language involve = that thing is a part of the activity, etc.; he, she, or it is affected by it; to include someone in something, or to make them take part in or feel part of it issue = a subject or problem that people are thinking and talking about; a set of newspapers or magazines published at the same time or a single copy of a newspaper or magazine labour = practical work, especially that which involves physical effort; the last stage of pregnancy from the time when the muscles of the womb start to push the baby out of the body until the baby appears legal = connected with the law; allowed by the law major = more important, bigger, or more serious than others of the same type; belonging or relating to a musical scale that is generally thought to have a happy sound method = a particular way of doing something; occur = (especially of accidents and other unexpected events) to happen; to exist or be present in, among, etc period = a length of time; in school, a division of time in the day when a subject is taught; said at the end of a statement to show that you believe you have said all there is to say on a subject and you are not going to discuss it any more: policy = a set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that has been agreed officially by a group of people, a business organization, a government, or a political party; a document showing an agreement you have made with an insurance company: principle = a basic idea or rule that explains or controls how something happens or works; a moral rule or standard of good behaviour proceed = to continue as planned process = a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result; a series of changes that happen naturally; a method of producing goods in a factory by treating natural substances require = to need something or make something necessary; research = a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a (new) understanding; 2 to study a subject in detail, especially in order to discover new information or reach a new understanding respond = to say or do something as a reaction to something that has been said or done role = the position or purpose that someone or something has in a situation, organization, society, or relationship; an actor's part in a film or play section = one of the parts that something is divided into; a cut made in part of the body in an operation; to officially force someone who has mental health problems to stay in a hospital and receive treatment because they might harm themselves or other people sector = one of the areas into which the economic activity of a country is divided; an area of land or sea that has been divided from other areas and is controlled by a particular country significant = important or noticeable; having a special meaning similar = looking or being almost, but not exactly, the same source = the place something comes from or starts at, or the cause of something; someone or something that supplies information; to get something from a particular place specific = relating to one thing and not others; particular; clear and exact structure = the way in which the parts of a system or object are arranged or organized, or a system arranged in this way; something that has been made or built from parts, especially a large building; an organ in the body, or part of an organ, that does a particular job; to plan, organize, or arrange the parts of something theory = a formal statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or of ideas that are suggested to explain a fact or event or, more generally, an opinion or explanation vary = If things of the same type vary, they are different from each other, and if you vary them, you cause them to be different from each other; to change or cause something to change in amount or level, especially from one occasion to another achieve = to succeed in finishing something or reaching an aim, especially after a lot of work or effort; acquire = to get something administrate = to control the operation or arrangement of something; to cause someone to receive something affect = to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone or something; to pretend to feel or think something; to start to wear or do something in order to make people admire or respect you appropriate = suitable or right for a particular situation or occasion; to take something for your own use, usually without permission; to keep an amount of money to use for a particular purpose aspect = one part of a situation, problem, subject, etc.; the direction in which a building, window, room, or sloping field faces, or the view that can be seen because of this direction; the appearance of a place, or the expression on a person's face; the form of a verb that shows how the meaning of that verb is considered in relation to time, typically expressing if an action is complete, repeated, or continuous; a measurement of the width compared to the height of the picture on a TV or computer screen: assist = to help; If someone is assisting the police with their inquiries, it usually means they have been taken to the police station to be asked questions about a crime category = (in a system for dividing things according to appearance, quality, etc.) a type, or a group of things having some features that are the same chapter = any of the separate parts into which a book or other piece of text is divided, usually given a number or title; a period that is part of a larger amount of time during which something happens; a local division of a larger organization commision = to formally choose someone to do a special piece of work, or to formally ask for a special piece of work from someone; to give someone the official authority to be an officer in the armed forces; a group of people who have been formally chosen to discover information about a problem or examine the reasons why the problem exists; a payment to someone who sells goods that is directly related to the amount of goods sold, or a system that uses such payments community = the people living in one particular area or people who are considered as a unit because of their common interests, social group, or nationality; a group of animals or plants that live or grow together; the general public complex = involving a lot of different but related parts; difficult to understand or find an answer to because of having many different parts; a particular anxiety or unconscious fear that a person has, especially as a result of an unpleasant experience that they have had in the past or because they have a low opinion of their own worth; a large building with various connected rooms or a related group of buildings compute = to calculate an answer or amount by using a machine conclude = to end a speech, meeting, or piece of writing; to complete an official agreement or task, or arrange a business deal; to judge or decide something after thinking carefully about it: conduct = to organize and perform a particular activity; to behave in a particular way, especially in a public or formal situation, or to organize the way in which you live in a particular way; to lead someone to a particular place; to direct the performance of musicians or a piece of music; to allow electricity or heat to go through consequent = happening as a result of something construct = to build something or put together different parts to form something whole; an idea or an imaginary situation consume = to use fuel, energy, or time, especially in large amounts; to eat or drink, especially a lot of something; If a fire consumes something, it destroys it completely credit = praise, approval, or honour; a method of paying for goods or services at a later time, usually paying interest as well as the original money; a unit that represents a successfully finished part of an educational course culture = the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time; music, art, theatre, literature, etc.; cells, tissues, organs, or organisms grown for scientific purposes, or the activity of breeding and keeping particular living things in order to get the substances they produce; to breed and keep particular living things in order to get the substances they produce design = to make or draw plans for something, for example clothes or buildings; to intend; a drawing or set of drawings showing how a building or product is to be made and how it will work and look distinct = clearly noticeable; that certainly exists; clearly separate and different (from something else) element = a part of something; a small amount of an emotion or quality; a simple substance that cannot be reduced to smaller chemical parts; earth, air, fire, and water from which people in the past believed everything else was made equate = to consider one thing to be the same as or equal to another thing evaluate = to judge or calculate the quality, importance, amount, or value of something; feature = a typical quality or an important part of something; a part of a building or of an area of land; one of the parts of someone's face that you notice when you look at them; a special article in a newspaper or magazine, or a part of a television or radio broadcast, that deals with a particular subject; to include someone or something as an important part; a film that is usually 90 or more minutes long final = last focus = the main or central point of something, especially of attention or interest; (in physics) the point where waves of light or sound that are moving towards each other meet; used to say that a photograph is clear/not clear; impact = the force or action of one object hitting another; a powerful effect that something, especially something new, has on a situation or person; to have an influence on something injure = to hurt or cause physical harm to a person or animal institute = an organization where people do a particular type of scientific, educational, or social work, or the buildings that it uses; to start or cause a system, rule, legal action, etc. to exist invest = to put money, effort, time, etc. into something to make a profit or get an advantage; item = something that is part of a list or group of things; one of several subjects to be considered; a piece of news on television or radio, or in a newspaper; journal = a serious magazine or newspaper that is published regularly about a particular subject; a written record of what you have done each day, sometimes including your private thoughts and feelings maintain = to continue to have; to keep in existence, or not allow to become less; to express firmly your belief that something is true; to provide someone with food and whatever is necessary for them to live on normal = ordinary or usual; the same as would be expected obtain = to get something, especially by asking for it, buying it, working for it, or producing it from something else; (especially of a situation) to exist participate = to take part in or become involved in an activity perceive = to come to an opinion about something, or have a belief about something; to see something or someone, or to notice something that is obvious positive = full of hope and confidence, or giving cause for hope and confidence; certain and without any doubt; (of a medical test) showing that a person has the disease or condition for which they are being tested; potential = possible when the necessary conditions exist; someone's or something's ability to develop, achieve, or succeed previous = happening or existing before something or someone else primary = more important than anything else; main; UK of or for the teaching of young children, especially those between five and eleven years old; happening first; in the US, an election in which people who belong to a political party choose who will represent that party in an election for political office purchase = to buy something; a firm hold that allows someone or something to be pulled or lifted without sliding or falling range = a set of similar things; the goods made by one company or goods of one particular type that are sold in a shop; the amount, number, or type of something between an upper and a lower limit; the distance within which you can see, hear, or hit someone; US land for animals to feed on; to position people or things together, especially in rows region = a particular area or part of the world, or any of the large official areas into which a country is divided; a particular part of someone's body; regulate = to control something, especially by making it work in a particular way relevant = connected with what is happening or being discussed; correct or suitable for a particular purpose reside = to live, have your home, or stay in a place resource = a useful or valuable possession or quality of a country, organization, or person; to provide an organization or department with money or equipment restrict = to limit the movements or actions of someone, or to limit something and reduce its size or prevent it from increasing; secure = positioned or fixed firmly and correctly and therefore not likely to move, fall, or break; A secure place is one that it is difficult to get out of or escape from; likely to continue and not fail or be lost; not doubting or being worried about yourself and your personal relationships; seek = to try to find or get something, especially something that is not a physical object; to ask for advice, help, approval, permission, etc.; to try or attempt; select = to choose a small number of things, or to choose by making careful decisions; of only the best type or highest quality, and usually small in size or amount site = a place where something is, was, or will be built, or where something happened, is happening, or will happen; to exist or be built in a particular place strategy = a detailed plan for achieving success in situations such as war, politics, business, industry, or sport, or the skill of planning for such situations; survey = an examination of opinions, behaviour, etc., made by asking people questions; the measuring and recording of the details of an area of land; a description of the whole of a subject; text = the written words in a book, magazine, etc., not the pictures; the exact words of a speech, etc; tradition = a belief, principle, or way of acting that people in a particular society or group have continued to follow for a long time, or all of these beliefs, etc. in a particular society or group; transfer = to move someone or something from one place, vehicle, person, or group to another; to arrange for someone to answer phone calls received on one telephone on another telephone; to change to a different job, team, place of work, etc., or to make someone do this; to make something the legal property of another person alternative = things are considered to be unusual and often have a small but enthusiastic group of people who support them; something that is different from something else, especially from what is usual, and offering the possibility of choice circumstance = a fact or event that makes a situation the way it is; events that change your life, over which you have no control; comment = something that you say or write that expresses your opinion; compensate = to pay someone money in exchange for something that has been lost or damaged or for some problem; to provide something good or useful in place of something or to make someone feel better about something that has failed or been lost or missed component = a part that combines with other parts to form something bigger consent = permission or agreement; to agree to do something, or to allow someone to do something considerable = large or of noticeable importance; constant = happening a lot or all the time; staying the same, or not getting less or more; constrain = to control and limit something contribute = to give something, especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people; to write articles for a newspaper, magazine, or book convene = to bring together a group of people for a meeting, or to meet for a meeting coordinate = to make various different things work effectively as a whole; to match or look attractive together; one of a pair of numbers and/or letters that show the exact position of a point on a map or graph; core = the basic and most important part of something; the hard central part of some fruits, such as apples, which contains the seeds; a long, thin cylinder-shaped mass of material taken out of the Earth for study corporate = relating to a large company; of or shared by a whole group and not just of a single member correspond = to match or be similar or equal; to communicate by writing a letter or sending an email criteria = a standard by which you judge, decide about, or deal with something deduce = to reach an answer or a decision by thinking carefully about the known facts; demonstrate = to show or make make something clear; to express or show that you have a particular feeling, quality, or ability; to make a public expression that you are not satisfied about something, especially by marching or having a meeting document = a paper or set of papers with written or printed information, especially of an official type; a text that is written and stored on a computer; to record the details of an event, a process, etc dominate = to have control over a place or person; to be the largest, most important, or most noticeable part of something emphasis = the particular importance or attention that is given to something; the extra force that is given to a word or part of a word when it is spoken ensure = to make something certain to happen exclude = to prevent someone or something from entering a place or taking part in an activity; to intentionally not include something; to decide that something is not true or possible framework = a supporting structure around which something can be built; a system of rules, ideas, or beliefs that is used to plan or decide something fund = an amount of money saved, collected, or provided for a particular purpose; to provide the money to pay for an event, activity, or organization illustrate = to draw pictures for a book, magazine, etc.; to show the meaning or truth of something more clearly, especially by giving examples immigrate = to come to live in a different country imply = to communicate an idea or feeling without saying it directly; to involve something or make it necessary; initial = of or at the beginning; the first letter of a name, especially when used to represent a name; to write your initials on something instance = a particular situation, event, or fact, especially an example of something that happens generally; to give something as an example interact = to communicate with or react to justify = to give or to be a good reason for; layer = a level of material, such as a type of rock or gas, that is different from the material above or below it, or a thin sheet of a substance; the group of people at a particular level in an organization; to cut hair so that some top parts of the hair are shorter than the hair underneath, to give it a particular style or shape link = a connection between two people, things, or ideas; a connection between documents on the internet; one of the rings in a chain; to make a connection between two or more people, things, or ideas locate = to be in a particular place; to find or discover the exact position of something; to move to a place to do business maximise = to make something as great in amount, size, or importance as possible; to make something larger on a computer screen minor = having little importance, influence, or effect, especially when compared with other things of the same type; belonging or relating to a musical scale that is generally thought to have a sad sound; someone who is too young to have the legal responsibilities of an adult; negate = to cause something to have no effect outcome = a result or effect of an action, situation, etc.; partner = a person or organization you are closely involved with in some way; one of the owners of a company; philosopy = the use of reason in understanding such things as the nature of the real world and existence, the use and limits of knowledge, and the principles of moral judgment; a group of theories and ideas related to the understanding of a particular subject; the way that someone thinks about life and deals with it physical = connected with the body; relating to things you can see or touch, or relating to the laws of nature; relating to physics; an examination of a person's body by a doctor in order to discover if that person is healthy, sometimes done before a person can be accepted for a particular job proportion = the number or amount of a group or part of something when compared to the whole; the correct or most attractive relationship between the size of different parts of the same thing or between one thing and another; used in a number of phrases to mean importance and seriousness publish = to make information available to people, especially in a book, magazine, or newspaper, or to produce and sell a book, magazine, or newspaper react = to act in a particular way as a direct result of something else; to change in a physical or chemical way when put with another substance register = to put information, especially your name, into an official list or record; to record, show, or express something; If something registers, someone realizes it and if someone registers something, they realize it; If you register a letter or parcel, you send it using a special postal service, so that it will be dealt with in a special way and not be lost; a book or record containing a list of names; rely = to need a particular thing or the help and support of someone or something in order to continue, to work correctly, or to succeed; to trust someone or something or to expect him, her, or it to behave in a particular way remove = to take something or someone away from somewhere, or off something; to make a negative feeling disappear; to force someone to leave an important job or a position of power because they have behaved badly or not in a way you approve of; a stage in a process or development scheme = an officially organized plan or system; a plan for getting an advantage for yourself, especially by deceiving others; to make clever, secret plans that often deceive others sequence = a series of related things or events, or the order in which they follow each other; a part of a film that shows a particular event or a related series of events shift = to (cause something or someone to) move or change from one position or direction to another, especially slightly; to get rid of something unwanted, or to sell something; a group of workers who do a job for a period of time during the day or night, or the period of time itself; a simple dress that hangs straight from the shoulders specify = to explain or describe something clearly and exactly; sufficient = enough for a particular purpose; to have eaten enough; task = a piece of work to be done, especially one done regularly, unwillingly, or with difficulty; to criticize or speak angrily to someone for something that they have done wrong technical = relating to the knowledge, machines, or methods used in science and industry; technique = a way of doing an activity that needs skill: technology = (the study and knowledge of) the practical, especially industrial, use of scientific discoveries valid = based on truth or reason; able to be accepted; A ticket or other document is valid if it is based on or used according to a set of official conditions that often include a time limit; having legal force volume = the amount of space that is contained within an object or solid shape; the number or amount of something in general; the level of sound produced by a television, radio, etc., or the switch or other device controlling this; one in a set of related books access = the method or possibility of getting near to a place or person; the right or opportunity to use or look at something; to open a computer file (= a collection of information stored on a computer) in order to look at or change information in it adequate = enough or satisfactory for a particular purpose; annual = happening once every year; relating to a period of one year; a book or magazine published once a year, especially for children, with the same title and style but different contents apparent = able to be seen or understood; seeming to exist or be true approximate = not completely accurate but close; to be almost the same as attitude = a feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving that is caused by this; If you say that someone has attitude, you mean that they are very confident and want people to notice them.; a position of the body attribute = a quality or characteristic that someone or something has civil = not military or religious, or relating to the ordinary people of a country; relating to private arguments between people or organizations rather than criminal matters; polite and formal code = a system of words, letters, or signs used to represent a message in secret form, or a system of numbers, letters, or signals used to represent something in a shorter or more convenient form; a set of rules that are accepted as general principles, or a set of written rules that say how people in a particular organization or country should behave; a set of principles that are accepted and used by society or a particular group of people; an arrangement of genetic material in DNA (= the chemical that carries genetic information in cells); to represent a message in code so that it can only be understood by the person who is meant to receive it commit = to do something illegal or something that is considered wrong; to promise or give your loyalty, time, or money to a particular principle, person, or plan of action; to send someone officially to prison or hospital communicate = to share information with others by speaking, writing, moving your body, or using other signals; to talk about your thoughts and feelings, and help other people to understand them; to pass a disease from one person or animal to another; If one room communicates with another, it connects with it through a door concentrate = to direct your attention or your efforts towards a particular activity, subject, or problem; to bring or come together in a large number or amount in one particular area; to make a liquid or substance stronger and reduce its size by removing water from it; confer = to exchange ideas on a particular subject, often in order to reach a decision on what action to take; to give an official title, honour, or advantage to someone contrast = an obvious difference between two or more things; to compare two people or things in order to show the differences between them cycle = a group of events that happen in a particular order, one following the other, and are often repeated; one in a series of movements that a machine performs; a group of plays, poems, songs, etc. written by one person and connected with each other by dealing with the same characters or ideas; debate = serious discussion of a subject in which many people take part; to discuss a subject in a formal way; to try to make a decision about something despite = without taking any notice of or being influenced by; not prevented by; dimension = a measurement of something in a particular direction, especially its height, length, or width; a part or feature or way of considering something domestic = relating to a person's own country; belonging or relating to the home, house, or family; someone paid to do work, such as cleaning and cooking, in someone else's house emerge = to appear by coming out of something or out from behind something; to come to the end of a difficult period or experience; to become known, especially as a result of examining something or asking questions about it error = a mistake; ethnic = relating to a particular race of people; from a different race, or interesting because characteristic of an ethnic group that is very different from those that are common in western culture; goal = an area on a playing field, that usually has two posts with a net fixed behind them, where players try to send the ball in order to score in sports such as football and hockey; a point scored in some sports, such as football and hockey, when a player gets the ball into this area; an aim or purpose grant = an amount of money given especially by the government to a person or organization for a special purpose; to give or allow someone something, usually in an official way; to accept that something is true, often before expressing an opposite opinion; hence = that is the reason or explanation for; from this time hypothesis = an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved implement = to start using a plan or system; a tool that works by being moved by hand or by being pulled across a surface: implicate = to show that someone is involved in a crime or partly responsible for something bad that has happened impose = to officially force a rule, tax, punishment, etc. to be obeyed or received; to force someone to accept something, especially a belief or way of living; to expect someone to do something for you or spend time with you when they do not want to or when it is not convenient for them integrate = to mix with and join society or a group of people, often changing to suit their way of life, habits, and customs; to combine two or more things in order to become more effective; internal = existing or happening inside a person, object, organization, place, or country investigate = to examine a crime, problem, statement, etc. carefully, especially to discover the truth job = the regular work that a person does to earn money; a particular piece of work; something that is your responsibility; a problem or an activity that is difficult; label = a piece of paper or other material that gives you information about the object it is attached to; a word or a phrase that is used to describe the characteristics or qualities of people, activities, or things, often in a way that is unfair; a company that produces goods for sale, the goods themselves, or the company's name or symbol; mechanism = a part of a machine, or a set of parts that work together; a part of your behaviour that helps you to deal with a difficult situation obvious = easy to see, recognize, or understand occupy = to fill, exist in, or use a place or period of time; to keep someone busy or interested; (of an army or group of people) to move into and take control and/or possession of a place option = one thing that can be chosen from a set of possibilities, or the freedom to make a choice; output = an amount of something produced by a person, machine, factory, country, etc overall = in general rather than in particular, or including all the people or things in a particular group or situation parallel = If two or more lines, streets, etc. are parallel, the distance between them is the same all along their length; used to describe an event or situation that happens at the same time as and/or is similar to another one; to happen at the same time as something else, or be similar or equal to something else; parameter = a set of facts or a fixed limit that establishes or limits how something can or must happen or be done phase = any stage in a series of events or in a process of development; period of strange or difficult behaviour, especially that a young child or person goes through, that will stop after a while; to introduce something in stages over a particular period of time predict = to say that an event or action will happen in the future, especially as a result of knowledge or experience; principal = first in order of importance; an amount of money that someone has invested in a bank or lent to a person or organization so that they will receive interest on it from the bank, person, or organization; the person in charge of a school prior = existing or happening before something else, or before a particular time; more important; a man who is in charge of a priory or who is second in charge of an abbey professional = related to work that needs special training or education; having the qualities that you connect with trained and skilled people, such as effectiveness, skill, organization, and seriousness of manner project = a piece of planned work or an activity that is finished over a period of time and intended to achieve a particular aim; a study of a particular subject done over a period of time, especially by students; promote = to encourage people to like, buy, use, do, or support something; to raise someone to a higher or more important position or rank; regime = a particular government or a system or method of government; a particular way of operating or organizing a business, etc. resolve = to solve or end a problem or difficulty; to make a decision formally or with determination; strong determination retain = to keep or continue to have something; If a substance retains something, such as heat or water, it continues to hold or contain it; to get the services of a lawyer by paying them before you need them status = an accepted or official position, especially in a social group; the amount of respect, admiration, or importance given to a person, organization, or object; stress = great worry caused by a difficult situation, or something that causes this condition; he way that a word or syllable is pronounced with greater force than other words in the same sentence or other syllables in the same word; a force that acts in a way that often changes the shape of an object; emphasis subsequent = happening after something else; sum = an amount of money; the whole number or amount when two or more numbers or amounts have been added together summary = a short, clear description that gives the main facts or ideas about something; done suddenly, without discussion or legal arrangements undertake = to do or begin to do something, especially something that will take a long time or be difficult; to promise that you will do something academy = an organization intended to protect and develop an art, science, language, etc., or a school that teaches a particular subject or trains people for a particular job; the part of a football club that trains young players who might one day become part of the first team adjust = to change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable; to arrange your clothing to make yourself look tidy; to become more familiar with a new situation alter = to change something, usually slightly, or to cause the characteristics of something to change; ] to change the size of clothes so that they fit better; amend = to change the words of a text, especially a law or a legal document aware = knowing that something exists, or having knowledge or experience of a particular thing; having special interest in or experience of something and so knowing what is happening in that subject at the present time capacity = the total amount that can be contained or produced, or (especially of a person or organization) the ability to do a particular thing; a particular position or job challenge = (the situation of being faced with) something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person's ability; an invitation to compete or take part, especially in a game or argument; clause = a particular part of a written legal document, for example a law passed by Parliament or a contract (= an agreement); a group of words, consisting of a subject and a finite form of a verb compound = a chemical that combines two or more elements; something consisting of two or more different parts; a word that combines two or more different words. Often, the meaning of the compound cannot be discovered by knowing the meaning of the different words that form it. Compounds may be written either as one word or as separate words; an area surrounded by fences or walls that contains a group of buildings; to make a problem or difficult situation worse; to mix two things together; conflict = an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles; fighting between two or more groups of people or countries; If beliefs, needs, or facts, etc. conflict, they are very different and cannot easily exist together or both be true; consult = to get information or advice from a person, book, etc. with special knowledge on a particular subject; to discuss something with someone before you make a decisioncontact = communication with someone, especially by speaking or writing to them regularly; the fact of two people or things touching each other; a person, especially someone in a high position, who can give you useful information or introductions that will help you at work or socially; to communicate with someone by calling or sending them a letter, email, etc. decline = to gradually become less, worse, or lower; to refuse; when something becomes less in amount, importance, quality, or strength discrete = having a clear independent shape or form draft = a piece of text, a formal suggestion, or a drawing in its original state, often containing the main ideas and intentions but not the developed form; enable = to make someone able to do something, or to make something possible energy = the power and ability to be physically and mentally active; the power from something such as electricity or oil that can do work, such as providing light and heat; enforce = to make people obey a law, or to make a particular situation happen or be accepted; entity = something that exists apart from other things, having its own independent existence equivalent = having the same amount, value, purpose, qualities, etc.; evolve = to develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually expand = to increase in size, number, or importance, or to make something increase in this way expose = to remove what is covering something so that it can be seen; to make public something bad or dishonest external = of, on, for, or coming from the outside; facilitate = to make something possible or easier fundamental = forming the base, from which everything else develops; more important than anything else generate = to cause something to exist; to produce energy in a particular form image = a picture in your mind or an idea of how someone or something is; the way that something or someone is thought of by other people; liberal = respecting and allowing many different types of beliefs or behaviour; (of a political party or a country) believing in or allowing more personal freedom and development towards a fairer sharing of wealth and power within society; giving or given in a generous way; not exact; without attention to or interest in detail; someone who respects many different types of beliefs or behaviour licence = an official document that gives you permission to own, do, or use something, usually after you have paid money and/or taken a test; logic = a particular way of thinking, especially one that is reasonable and based on good judgment; a formal scientific method of examining or thinking about ideas margin = the amount by which one thing is different from another; the profit made on a product or service; the empty space to the side of the text on a page, sometimes separated from the rest of the page by a vertical line; the outer edge of an area; something that makes a particular thing possible, such as an extra amount of money, time, etc. allowed that makes it possible to deal with an emergency medical = related to the treatment of illness and injuries; an examination of a person's body by a doctor in order to discover if that person is healthy, sometimes done before a person can be accepted for a particular job mental = relating to the mind, or involving the process of thinking; crazy modify = to change something such as a plan, opinion, law, or way of behaviour slightly, usually to improve it or make it more acceptable; If a word or phrase modifies another word or phrase used with it, it limits or adds to its meaning monitor = a person who has the job of watching or noticing particular things; to watch and check a situation carefully for a period of time in order to discover something about it network = a large system consisting of many similar parts that are connected together to allow movement or communication between or along the parts, or between the parts and a control centre; to meet people who might be useful to know, especially in your job notion = a belief or idea; cloth, pins, thread, etc. used for sewing, or a shop or a department of a large shop that sells these objective = something that you plan to do or achieve; based on real facts and not influenced by personal beliefs or feelings; orient = the countries of East and Southeast Asia perspective = a particular way of considering something; the way that objects appear smaller when they are further away and the way parallel lines appear to meet each other at a point in the distance precise = exact and accurate prime = main or most important; of the best quality; the period in your life when you are most active or successful; to cover the surface of wood with a special paint before the main paint is put on; to tell someone something that will prepare them for a particular situation; to make a bomb or gun ready to explode or fire psychology = the scientific study of the way the human mind works and how it influences behaviour, or the influence of a particular person's character on their behaviour pursue = to follow someone or something, usually to try to catch him, her, or it; ratio = the relationship between two groups or amounts, which expresses how much bigger one is than the other reject = to refuse to accept, use, or believe something or someone; a product that is damaged or not perfectly made; a person who has not been accepted by an organization or by society revenue = the income that a government or company receives regularly stable = firmly fixed or not likely to move or change; a building in which horses are kept; a group of people who perform a similar activity and who are trained by the same person or employed by the same organization style = a way of doing something, especially one that is typical of a person, group of people, place, or period; substitute = to use something or someone instead of another thing or person; sustain = to cause or allow something to continue for a period of time; to suffer or experience, especially damage or loss; to support emotionally; to keep alive symbol = a sign, shape, or object that is used to represent something else; something that is used to represent a quality or idea; target = an object shot at during shooting practice, often a circle with a pattern of rings, or any object or place at which bullets, bombs, etc. are aimed; a person or a particular group of people that something is directed at, or that something is intended for; a level or situation that you intend to achieve; to direct advertising, criticism, or a product at someone transit = the movement of goods or people from one place to another trend = a general development or change in a situation or in the way that people are behaving; fashionable; version = a particular form of something that is slightly different from other forms of the same thing welfare = help given, especially by the state or an organization, to people who need it, especially because they do not have enough money; physical and mental health and happiness, especially of a person whereas = compared with the fact that; but abstract = existing as an idea, feeling, or quality, not as a material object; An abstract argument or discussion is general and not based on particular examples; used to refer to a type of painting, drawing, or sculpture that uses shapes, lines, and colour in a way that does not try to represent the appearance of people or things; a short form of a speech, article, book, etc., giving only the most important facts or ideas accurate = correct, exact, and without any mistakes; acknowlegde = to accept, admit, or recognize something, or the truth or existence of something; to tell someone, usually in a letter or email, that you have received something they sent you aggregate = something formed by adding together several amounts or things; to combine into a single group or total allocate = to give something to someone as their share of a total amount, to use in a particular way; assign = to give a particular job or piece of work to someone; attach = to fasten, join, or connect something; to officially take someone's money or the things that they own, or to arrest someone, usually because that person has failed to pay money that is owed author = the writer of a book, article, play, etc.; bond = a close connection joining two or more people; an official paper given by the government or a company to show that you have lent them money that they will pay back to you at a particular interest rate; to stick materials together, especially using glue brief = lasting only a short time or containing few words; (of clothes) very short; to give someone detailed instructions or information; capable = able to do things effectively and skilfully, and to achieve results cite = to mention something as proof for a theory or as a reason why something has happened; to praise someone in the armed forces publicly because of their brave actions cooperate = to act or work together for a particular purpose, or to be helpful by doing what someone asks you to do discriminate = to treat a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality, etc.; display = to arrange something or a collection of things so that it can be seen by the public; to show a feeling; a collection of objects or pictures arranged for people to look at, or a performance or show for people to watch; diverse = including many different types of people or things; very different from each other domain = an area of interest or an area over which a person has control; edit = to make changes to a text or film, deciding what will be removed and what will be kept in, in order to prepare it for being printed or shown; to be in charge of the reports in a newspaper or magazine, etc. enhance = to improve the quality, amount, or strength of something; estate = a large area of land in the country that is owned by a family or an organization and is often used for growing crops or raising animals; everything that a person owns when they die exceed = to be greater than a number or amount, or to go past an allowed limit expert = a person with a high level of knowledge or skill relating to a particular subject or activity; having or showing a lot of knowledge or skill; explicit = clear and exact; showing or talking about sex or violence in a very detailed way; federal = relating to the central government, and not to the government of a region, of some countries such as the US; A federal system of government consists of a group of regions that are controlled by a central government fee = an amount of money paid for a particular piece of work or for a particular right or service; flexible = able to change or be changed easily according to the situation; able to bend or to be bent easily without breaking furthermore = in addition; more importantly ignorant = not having enough knowledge, understanding, or information about something; not polite or showing respect incentive = something that encourages a person to do something; incidence = an event, or the rate at which something happens incorporate = to include something as part of something larger; index = a collection of information stored on a computer or on a set of cards, in alphabetical order; a system of numbers used for comparing values of things that change according to each other or a fixed standard; inhibit = to prevent someone from doing something by making them feel nervous or embarrassed ; to slow down a process or the growth of something initiate = to cause something to begin; to teach someone about an area of knowledge, or to allow someone into a group by a special ceremony; a person who has recently joined a group and has been taught its secrets input = something such as energy, money, or information that is put into a system, organization, or machine so that it can operate; to put information into a computer or other piece of electronic equipment instruct = to order or tell someone to do something, especially in a formal way; to employ a lawyer to represent you in court; to teach someone how to do something intelligent = showing intelligence, or able to learn and understand things easily interval = a period between two events or times, or the space between two points; a short period between the parts of a performance or a sports event; lecture = a formal talk on a serious subject given to a group of people, especially students; an angry or serious talk given to someone in order to criticize their behaviour; to give a formal talk to a group of people, often at a college or university migrate = to move from one place to another minimum = the smallest amount or number allowed or possible; ministry = in Britain and some other countries, a department of the government led by a minister motive = a reason for doing something; (of power or force) causing movement or action neutral = not saying or doing anything that would encourage or help any of the groups involved in an argument or war; having features or characteristics that are not easily noticed; the position of the gears in a vehicle when they are not connected to the engine nevertheless = despite what has just been said or referred to overseas = in, from, or to other countries precede = to be or go before something or someone in time or space presume = to believe something to be true because it is very likely, although you are not certain; to do something although you know that you do not have a right to do it rational = showing clear thought or reason recover = to get back something lost, especially health, ability, possessions, etc. reveal = to make known or show something that is surprising or that was previously secret; to allow something to be seen that, until then, had been hidden scope = the range of a subject covered by a book, programme, discussion, class, etc' the opportunity for doing something subsidy = money given as part of the cost of something, to help or encourage it to happen tape = thin plastic in a long, narrow strip with a magnetic covering that allows sounds or sounds and pictures to be recorded and played again, especially one on which sound is (to be) recorded; trace = to find someone or something that was lost; › to discover the cause or origin of something by examining the way in which it has developed; a very slight amount transform = to change completely the appearance or character of something or someone, especially so that that thing or person is improved transport = the movement of people or goods from one place to another; underlie = to be a hidden cause of or strong influence on something; utilise = to use something in an effective way;
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