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Vocabulary 1 to cram = study in a very concentrated way for a short time genius = an exceptionally clever person to do some revision = study of work you have done past papers = exam papers from previous years to rote-learn = learning purely by repetition mnemonics = tricks that help you remember something to bury yourself in books = spend the maximum time studying intensively = in a very focused way to know the subject inside out = know it completely composition = could be just 50-100 words essay = longer than a composition, more serious, hundreds or thousands of words project = like an assignment, emphasis on student's own material and topic assignment = a long essay, thousands of words portfolio = a collection of individual pieces of work dissertation = a long, research-based work, for a degree or diploma thesis = a very long, original, research-based work, for a higher degree (PhD) mind map = diagram that lays out ideas for a topic and how they are connected to one another first draft = first, rough version plagiarism = using other people's work as if it was yours to acknowledge = give details of deadline = date by which you must hand in the work to submit = to hand in; formal to assess = to evaluate and give grade feedback = comments from the tutor,teacher academic journals = magazines with academic articles to access it online = get hold of (it) on the internet inter-library loan = system where libraries exchange books/journals with one another open educational resources = online materials that can be freely used by teachers and student anywhere to drop out = leave the course before the end because they cannot cope finals = last exams before the end of a college or university course well-qualified = with the right and formal qualifications Vocabulary 2 equality of opportunity = when everyone had the same chances selective = pupils are chosen, usually for academic reasons, for entry comprehensive = everyone enters without exams and education is free, paid for by the government schooling = education received at school elitism = when you favour a small, privileged group inherent in = existing as a basic part of something league tables = lists of schools or colleges, form the best down to the worst, based on exam results to perpetuate = make something continue forever two-tier system = a system with two separate levels, one of which is better than the other to perceive = to see, to consider better-of = richer well-endowed = receiving a lot of money in grants, gifts from rich people to depress = to reduce less well-of = poorer to excel = achieve an excellent standard scholarship = money given to pay for studies, usually provided on the basis of academic merit bursarie = money given to pay for studies, usually provided on the basis of need tertiary = education at college or university level student loan = money that students can borrow from a bank while studying and then pay back once they are in work undergraduate = student doing a first degree postgraduate = student doing a further degree tuition fee = money paid to receive teaching the three R's = reading, writing and arithmetic literacy = the ability to read numeracy = the ability to count/ do basic maths curriculum reform = changes to what is covered in the national syllabus syllabus = plan of what is to be studied lifelong/continuing education = education for all ages mature student = adult student older than the average student special needs education = education for children who cannot learn the normal way, because they have some disability one-to-one = one teacher and one pupil, not a group to bully = threatening behaviour guideline = advice (often official) on how something should be done distraction = takes attention away Vocabulary 3 opposite number = has the same position / does the same job as me (informal) working relationship = way of communication and working together to collaborate = to work together to achieve shared goals counterpart = more formal equivalent of opposite number rapport = communication / relationship to take the initiative = make decisions without being told what to do hierarchical = has a structure with important and less important people pecking order = a system where some people have the right to get benefits / promotions before others job-share = an agreement where two people each share the same job workmates = colleagues you are friendly with to talk shop = talk about work (informal) mundane = ordinary, not interesting to meet a deadline = have something finished by a fixed day or time to volunteer = offer to do something without being asked or told to do it rewarding = making you feel satisfied that you have done important or useful, or done something well stimulating = encouraging new ideas or new thinking workload = amount of work I have to do mechanical = you don't have to think about what you're doing repetitive = the same thing is repeated every day to knock off = to finish work (informal) monotonous = boring because it never changes satisfying = make me feel pleased by providing what I need or want challenging = that tests my ability or determination glamorous = very exciting, which everyone admires irregular and anti-social = do not enable one to have a normal social life to be stuck behind a desk = sitting at a desk all day (informal) mind-numbing = extremely boring tight schedule = very strict or limited timetable to be stuck in a rut = trapped in a job they can't escape from dead-end = with no prospects of promotion technician = person whose job involves practical work with scientific or electrical equipment to go in with = to form a business partnership with start-up = a small business that has just started programmer = someone who writes computer programmes Vocabulary 4 dynamic = energetic and forceful drive = strong motivation rewarding = giving you a lot back close-knit = working in a close relationship sales experience = experience of selling things team player= someone good at working closely with other people to fit a description = have these qualities lucrative = producing a lot of money maternity/paternity/adoption leave = time away from work to prepare for and look after a new baby / adopted child perks = extra things apart from salary (informal) benefits = extra things apart from salary (formal) job satisfaction = a feeling that you job is worth doing and fulfills you workplace = the place where you work run-of-the-mill= ordinary, not special or exciting holiday entitlement = number of days you have the right to take as holiday increments = increases/rises (formal) overworked and underpaid = often said together as an informal, humorous fixed expression voluntary/compulsory redundancy = people losing their jobs, by offering to do so/ having no choice skeleton staff = the minimum number of workers needed to keep operating interview panel = the group of people interviewing someone for a job Vocabulary 5 telemarketing = marketing good and services by phone telesales = selling good and services by phone to cold call = to phone people who have no requested a call in order to try to sell them something to hard sell = attempt to sell something by being very forceful or persuasive to part with your money = spend money TV shopping channel = a TV channel devoted to selling products merchandise = products that are bought and sold hasn't look back = has moved forward successfully purchasing power = the ability to buy goods, amount of money they have available shop around = try different companies or shops to see which offers best value stocks = keep a supply of it to trade something up = buy one that is of higher value than the one you had before to trade something down = buy one that is of lower value than the one you had before brand loyalty = confidence in that particular make and a tendency always to choose it loss leader = item that is sold for less than it costs to attract people in the shop to price = to give them a price to go under the hammer = sale of goods or property where people make gradually increasing bods and the item is then sold to the highest red tape = bureaucracy (negative) administration = organisation and arrangement of operations proposition = formal offer takeover = agreement in which one company takes control of another one to merge = two companies join together to become one company to reach a compromise = come to an agreement in which both sides reduce their demands a little to hammer out a deal = talk in detail until a business agreement is made to swallow up = taken over by a larger company capital assets = building and machines owned by a company to invest in = put money into start-up = new company holiday property letting agency = a business organising the rental of holiday houses and flats Vocabulary 6 to put in/submit a tender = to supply a written offer to do a job for an agreed price to win a tender = to be given a job, after submitting a tender to meet/miss a deadline = to supply/fail to supply something by the agreed time penalty clause = part of a contract specifying what will happen if an agreement is broken outstanding account = account that has not yet been paid to default on a payment = to fail to pay something that has been agreed to distribute = to supply goods to shops and companies to ship = to send out goods that have been ordered to expire = to end (of something that was agreed for a fixed period expiry date = date when something runs out morale = amount of confidence felt by a person or group teamwork = working together for a common purpose bankruptcy = a situation in which a person or business has no money to pay debts liquidation = cause a business to close, so that its assets can be sold to pay its debts stock market = market for buying and selling of part shares to crash = to fail suddenly bonus = extra money, usually based on good performance or productivity productivity = rate at which goods are produced funding = money given by the government, an organisation, or bank, to allow an activity to be carried out sector = area of economic activity affinity = feeling close to someone or something, because of something that is shared short-term = immediate financial reward = money gained 'soul' damage = emotional and spiritual harm tuned-in = well-adjusted zip = energy (informal) entrepreneur = someone who start their own business, used especially of someone who sees a new opportunity propulsion = force that pushes something forward to propel = push something forward intuition = ability to know or understand something immediately without needing to think about it to deliver great results = produce great results Vocabulary 7 opportunistic = using situations for own benefit methodical = systematic careful chauvinistic = too patriotic to get carried away = become too excited and lose control obliging = ready to help superficial = not caring about serious things insecure = not confident perfectionist = not satisfied if things are not 100% perfect tactless = inclined to say things that upset or offend people intuitive = understanding instinctively diligent = hard-working placid = calm, not easily excited or angry magnetic personality = personality that attracts people to you shrewd = having good judgement extravagant = spends too much money down-to-earth = practical and sensible altruistic = thinking of others rather than yourself morose = gloomy sharp-tongued = inclined to speak in a severe and critical way naive = without enough experience of life, trusting easily Vocabulary 8 slender = thin in an attractive way scrawny = unattractively thin and bony-looking lanky = very tall and thin, and usually moving awkwardly gangly = tall, with long, thin arms and legs and rather awkward movements; often used of men and boys stout = with a quite fat, solid body; used of men and women stocky = short and with a body that is wide across the shoulders and chest lean = thin and healthy wiry = thin but strong double chin = fat around the chin unkempt = untidy, scruffy never a hair out of place = always well-dressed, neat and smart-looking immaculate = in perfect condition, smart swarthy = dark-coloured, used about skin sallow = yellowish haggard = his face looked thin and tired to grin = giving a bog smile to pout = positioning their lips in a sexually attractive way / in a look of annoyance to grimace = make an expression of pain or strong dislike to scowl = gave a bad-tempered, angry look to leer = looking in an unpleasant, sexually interested way to shrugg your shoulders = lifted his shoulders up and down to show he didn't know or couldn't answer to fold your arms = crossed one arm over the other close to his body to cross your legs = crossed one leg over the other while sitting to twitch = suddenly making small movements to clench your fist = closed her hand tightly because of anger to tap/drum your fingers = made quick, light hitting movements
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